Industrialization is not bad for the health of society but despite this usually, society in the past was opposed to industrialization. Perhaps there was no society that gladly and willingly accepted industrialization. It is primarily because industrialization created and continues to create many problems, which shake existing social foundations. There are many other causes responsible for opposition to industrialization. There are certain favorable conditions under which industrialization can progress. Why is industrialization opposed and what are the conditions under which industrialization flourishes are the main problems which need special consideration. There are many aspects of industrialization that impacted society in many way such as Social Impact of Industrialization, Impact of Industrialization on the Family System, Impact of Industrialization on Religion, The impact of Industrialisation on Urbanisation, and The Impacts of Industrialization on Rural Life. which can be described under the following headings and subheadings:
Social Impact of Industrialization
Industrialization very deeply affects social patterns and processes. It changes our social outlook and approach to social problems. It influences family, religion, and the whole of our urban and rural pattern and setup. Some of the important social effects may be discussed as under.
Industrialization creates a great problem of social adjustment. In a rural economy usually, there are villages of solidarity and a spirit of collectiveness. There is less competition and more cooperation. But with industrialization spirit of collectivism is replaced by individualism, not only this, but the village loses its family character, which creates many problems of social adjustment.
Setback to Customs and Traditions.
Villages all over the world have their customs and traditions. These develop after long years of labor. Industrialization changes the whole outlook of the people towards these customs and traditions to the disadvantage of society.
Setback to Handicrafts.
Handicrafts receive a serious setback. Industry can produce goods quickly, in a better manner, and with less cost. The goods produced by machines are better to look at. The people thus prefer to purchase machine-made goods rather than handicrafts, resulting in a loss of income for the villagers and lowering their living standard, making their lives economically miserable.
Effect on Family System.
Agricultural pattern favors joint family system, whereas industrialization not only discourages the system but makes that impossible because every village boy who manages to get a job in the industry cannot take his whole family with him.
Industrialization creates as well as solves many health problems. It can produce goods, which help in maintaining cleanliness etc. But usually, it creates health Problems. Industries fail to provide good accommodation to their low-paid employees, who are forced to live in huts and shanties without proper drainage and water facilities. The smoke for health is in itself a disease trap. Even though there is the problem of inhaling and exhaling Thus industry also creates health problems.
The Problem of Moral Standards.
Usually, the old and young in a family live in a hut built by the workers around the factory. This creates moral problems for grown-up children both boys and girls.
Disproportionate Urban-Rural Development.
When there is industrialization, more stress is laid on the development of urban areas where the industries are located rather than the rural areas where there are no industries. The problem of urban-rural development is created. Urban areas develop only at the cost of rural areas, which in turn creates problems.
The problem of Taxation Structure.
The pattern of taxation in an agricultural economy is different from the one which can be in an industrialized society. Agriculture cannot be taxed to the extent to which industry can be taxed. Similarly, agriculture can afford to have more direct taxation than industry. The state can collect and spend more in an industrialized society than in a society with an agricultural setup.
Deterioration in Urban Environment.
While discussing the social effects of industrialization, Prof, Kuchhal has said “During a period of rapid industrialization there may be a time lag between the establishment of factories in the urban areas and making associated investments in public utilities, road, and means of transport, housing, sanitation of schools, hospitals and recreation facilities. It may lead to a deterioration in the urban environment, creation of slum conditions, overtaking of facilities and consequent reduction in the standard of living.”
It will thus be observed that industrialization results in the creation of many social problems. It influences our family and religion no aspect of life is not influenced by industrialization either in one way or the other.
The Impact of Industrialization on the Family System.
Family is one of the oldest institutions in the world. It has not remained out of the influence of industrialization, some of the important influences or impacts of industrialization on family life have been as under:
Trend Towards Simple Family System.
Due to industrial advancement, new factories have been set up. These employ an individual but not the whole joint family. This has resulted in the breakup of the joint family system and encouraged the single system.
Economic Self-Sufficiency of Women.
In the new factories, the women get employment according to their ability and capability. Thus, these become economically self-sufficient. This has its advantages as well as disadvantages.
Sense of Independence.
The women come out of their houses, away from their mothers and fathers-in-law with the result that they develop a sense of independence.
Less Care for the Children.
When parents go out to work in factories, the children are neglected. They are likely to go astray. Their growth and development are adversely affected. In the family, nobody has time for the children at all. Thus, we find that the children do not come up as good citizens of tomorrow.
Family Standard is Raised.
When both the husband and wife begin to earn, the economic standard of the family goes up. In this way, the family can provide good education, better food, and adequate shelter for themselves as we as for their dependents.
Change in Values.
Due to industrialization family values change. As long as the people are engaged in agriculture and live in a joint family system, they love each other. Thus, the members of that big family cooperate. The words of the head of the family are respected as law. Similarly, it is considered a matter of pride that all are living together. But this outlook changes. Each unit that migrates to the factory area becomes selfish. All the members of the family now do not assist each other. Similarly, the words of the head of the family are first weighted before these are accepted. The whole outlook towards family and also towards each-other changes.
With industrialization, many superstitions which were hitherto accepted by the family, now begin to disappear. A new scientific outlook gets roots which results in the broadening of outlooks.
Materialism in Family.
Due to industrialization worth and value of every person are measured not in terms of his earning capacity. Thus, money overshadows every other aspect. Materialism thus finds a very favorable place and position in the family.
The Impact of Industrialization on Religion.
The industrialization has not only influenced our family system but also religion and religious outlook. Some of the important effects of industrialization on religion have been:
Relaxation of Hold.
In the agricultural economy, the hold of religion on the people was very tight. Every good or bad event, in this type of economy, was attributed to God. But when they migrate to cities and work in the factories, the hold or grip of religion gets relaxed.
Analysis of Dogmas.
In the village the people neither come in contact with many people nor do they have any attitude to discuss the rationale of religious dogmas with the result that religion is accepted as it is. But due to industrial advancement, people find an opportunity to come in contact with each other and analyze every dogma before they accept that.
Importance of Priest.
In the villages, the people have great regard for their priests. He is considered a custodian of religion. But in the factories and industries, the high-caste people are required to work under the low-caste people, if they are less educated. Because the basis of recruitment in the industry is education and not caste. They sometimes even do not compete with them with the result that their importance is considerably reduced.
Quick Spread of Religious Ideas.
Industrialization has resulted in quick means of transportation and communication. Similarly, it also became possible to print religious books at a very quick speed, and convening meetings of religious bodies becomes very easy.
The Desire for Reforms.
Due to industrialization, many people come together in one place either in the factory or workshop or at any business centre. They also gather ideas and formulate their viewpoint about the evils which creep into religion. They raise their voice against them and thus there is the desire for introducing reforms before it is too late.
Existence of God.
Before the Industrial Revolution, nobody thought of challenging the very existence of God. But today there is a powerful section of society that even does not believe in the existence of God. They dispute the existence of any supreme and super natural power. Industrial advancement has thus affected our religion. It is primarily because the hold of religion in old societies was very tight but now that is being relaxed.
The impact of Industrialisation on Urbanisation.
In all societies, there is a trend toward urbanization. The people are migrating from villages to cities. In some societies rate of urbanization is quick whereas in others it is slow. To be more specific in western countries where there is more industrial advancement the rate of urbanization is quick, as compared with eastern countries where this rate is slow due to less technological advancement.
Industrialization is deeply influencing urban society. It is creating problems and is putting strains on urban society. Some of the important influences of industrialization on urbanization are as under:
It Results in Migration.
Due to industrial advancement new factories come up which can employ more people. Thus, people migrate from the villages to the cities. There is a concentration of population in the cities.
The problem of Accommodation.
As people migrate it becomes, difficult to provide them with accommodation, both residential and business. Thus, the problem of accommodation becomes serious. The rents go up and it becomes difficult to find suitable accommodation.
The Problem of Slums.
Since the people cannot get accommodation, they settle down where they find accommodation. They begin to live in the shanties and jhuggis. The result is that the slums are created which have serious problems including those of morality, health, law, and order.
The Strain on Transport.
Due to industrial advancement, people feel tempted to come to cities. The cities are thus faced with the serious problem of providing transport facilities to the people who are forced to settle down at far-off places, from their places of work.
The Problem of Crimes.
Since the number of people increases in the cities with that the crime rate and ratio also increase. The people do not know each other many a time and crimes are also committed quite unexpectedly and for which the people are not prepared.
The problem of Morality.
Due to industrial advancement moral values altogether change. The hold of morality considerably weakens. In addition to this, people begin to live in small houses, in the jhuggis, and in such places where the chance of committing moral crimes is quite bright, in this way, industrial advancement helps in committing moral crimes.
Quickness in Life.
Because of industrial advancement, in the cities, it becomes possible to do things quickly. In the cities, everybody is in a hurry. Everyone tries to see that things move very fast and at a very quick speed.
Raising of Living Standard.
The people migrate to cities to find jobs and avenues created by industry. Thus, the economic standard of the city people goes up. One finds in the cities the people enjoying the clubs, hotels, picnics, parties, etc. One also finds the latest means and methods of recreation in the. cities. Thus urban life is influencing the economic field due to industrial advancement.
Influence on Political Life.
With industrial advancement, few people become capable of amassing wealth. They then try to control political life both at local and national levels. Thus, the industry also influences the course of our political life.
The Impacts of Industrialization on rural life.
The industry has not only influenced our urban but rural life as well, as industry has remarkable relationship with agriculture. Some of the strains which it has put on our rural life may be discussed as under:
Migration to Cities.
In the new factories chances of employment increase with the result that the people migrate from the villages to the cities. This trend continues and becomes never-ending.
The Problem of Brain Drainage.
It is with great difficulty that the village people arrange to send their children from the villages to the cities for getting higher education. But somehow those who get an education are drained out to the cities where they find themselves more comfortable due to industrial advancement. In this way, the rural population is faced with the serious problem of brain drain.
The Disintegration of Family System.
Before industrialization. people in the rural area live in a joint family system. But now the whole system disintegrates and instead of a joint family system the people now live in single-family and the respect which the elders enjoyed is now not enjoyed by them.
Improvement in Agricultural Methods.
Though one today finds a traditional way of sowing and cutting but gradually due to industrial changes many machines are on the field. These help him in sowing, watering, thrashing, etc These also take his product to the market without much difficulty. Thus, technology has helped him in improving his agricultural techniques.
Less Burden on Land.
Before the introduction of machines and technological devices, every adult depended on the land for his livelihood, whether land could bear such a burden or not. But now many adults move to the cities and try to seek employment in the factories or set up their machines with the result that there is now less burden on the land.
The industry has provided occupational mobility to the villagers. They are now in a position to move from their traditional occupation of agriculture to any other occupation in the industry.
Changes in the systems.
Due to industrialization horizon of thinking of the villagers has changed with the result that many changes have now come now in the villages. The joint family system is now replaced with the single-family system. Similarly, the Individual cultivation system is now being replaced by the collective cultivation system. The caste system is losing ground and people belonging to different castes have started mixing with each other. Many costly systems and customs, including those of spending on marriages, birth and death ceremonies, etc. are now considerably changing.